Treated Wood in Aquatic and Sensitive Environments
The use of treated wood products in wetland, marine or freshwater environments
is its most sensitive application. The institute is dedicated to assuring our products
are used appropriately in such applications. Over a decade of intense scientific investigation has clearly established that in the vast majority of applications, used appropriately, treated wood is not a risk to the environments.
In order to assure that only appropriate treated wood is used in aquatic applications, WWPI developed the BMP's. Treated wood to be used in or over the waters should be specified and certified in compliance with the BMP's.
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BMP's - Best Management Practices (April 3, 2012) --- U.S. and
Canadian recommended guidelines for the production and use of treated
wood products in aquatic and other sensitive environments.
See The Difference!
The purpose of the Best Management Practices (BMP's) is to place enough preservative into a product to provide the needed level of protection while also minimizing use of the preservative above the required minimum industry standard to reduce the amount potentially available for movement in the environment. The below pictures demonstrate the difference between using the BMP's versus past practices.
Piling Not Treated to BMP's vs.Piling Treated to the BMP's.
BMP Quality Mark Now Available
A Quality Assurance program for the use with the Best Management Practices for the Use of Treated Wood in Aquatic Environments and Wetland Environments (BMP's) is available to the market. The BMP's were developed by the Western Wood Preservers Institute (WWPI), Wood Preservation Canada (WPC), Southern Pressure Treaters' Association (SPTA) and the Timber Piling Council to assure treated wood products are produced and installed in a manner which minimizes any potential for adverse impacts to aquatic environments. Designers and regulators in the western U.S. and Canada are encouraged to specify the use of BMP's and to require 3rd party quality assurance.
Where material is specified to be treated in conformance with the BMP's, assurance that the materials meet the BMP standards, including third party oversight, can be provided by the producer. Assurance will be in the form of a written certification document; or the material may be stamped or tagged with the BMP Mark. Only inspection agencies and producers authorized by the Western Wood Preservers Institute may apply the registered mark signifying conformance with the third party inspection program. Only Inspection Agencies which are accredited by the American Lumber Standards Committee are eligible to participate in the Mark Program.
Because not all agencies and producers are yet participating, inventories held by building materials suppliers may not be under the program. As interest in the program grows, use of the mark is anticipated to become more common on materials intended for use in aquatic applications and related sensitive environments.
BMP Mark Participants
The following firms are authorized to use the BMP Mark:
Timber Products Inspection
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Public Policy Issues
Washington State Ferries Are Destroying Habitat and Wasting Money in Misplaced Effort to Restore Habitat Through Creosote Removal Initiative --- by Stephen T. Smith AquAeTer, Inc. for the Creosote Council II
Creosote Treated Piling - Perceptions Versus Reality --- by Dr. Kenneth M. Brooks
June 3, 2004 Seminar: The Use and Permitting of Treated Wood in San Francisco Bay and Estuary
Complete general and preservative specific science on research, literature reviews and a modeling tool for evaluating the impacts of treated wood used in aquatic and sensitive environments.
In order to assure that only appropriate treated wood is used in aquatic applications, WWPI developed the BMP's. Treated wood to be used in or over water should be specified and certified in compliance with the BMP's.
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Preservative Studies, Reports and Guides
Treated Wood in Aquatic Environments Guide (12-20-2012)
Wildwood Study - Environmental effects associated with the use of CCA-C, ACZA and ACQ-B pressure treated wood used to construct boardwalks and wetland areas.
Sooke Basin Study - Conducted by Environment Canada this is the best and most recent science available on the environmental impacts associated with creosote treated products in marine applications.
Sooke Basin Creosote Evaluation Study - Addendum Report - An update on the above study reflecting the results of continued study and monitoring of the creosote impacts at day 1360 and 1540. Contains some dramatic underwater photographs of the life communities at study site.
National Timber Bridge Study
A critical review of the 12/31/01 draft document by Townsend, Stook, Ward and Helena Solo-Gabriele: "Leaching and Toxicity of CCA-Treated and Alternative-Treated Wood Products"
The affects of dissolved copper on salmon and the environmental affects associated with the use of wood preservatives in aquatic environments. By Dr. Kenneth M. Brooks, December 2004
Creosote Posts - Final Inspection of the 1958 Cooperative Test After 50 Years of Exposure as a Ground Contact Preservative.
Creosote Treated Timber in the Alaskan Marine Environment: A Report to the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities - Dr. Robert A. Perkins, PE - Institute of Northern Engineering - University of Alaska - Fairbanks - 2009.
Creosote Release From Cut/Broken Piles, ASARCO Smelter Site - Parametrix (June 2011): A study conducted by Washington Department of Natural Resources to evaluate the release of creosote from freshly cut or broken pile surfaces to seawater during removal of derelict structures constructed with creosote-treated piles.
Preservative Risk Assessment Model
An updated and revised preservative risk assessment model now
provides streamlined data entry for users, and allows evaluation of structures above and below water built with wood treated
with eleven of the most commonly used preservatives - creosote, pentachlorophenol, copper naphthenate, ACZA, CCA-C, CA-B™, Wolman AG™, ACQ-B or C™, Wolman μCu Azole™, MicroPro Azole™ and MicroPro Quat™
The model is designed to conservatively predict specific sites where pressure treated wood projects have a reasonable probability of creating an unacceptable environmental risk and a range of projects and sites where there is little environmental risk.
General Risk Assessment Model Aquatic Guide (excel file) - Kenneth Brooks (April 2010)
Modeling the Environmental Risks Associated With Pressure Treated Wood Used in Sensitive Environments - Kenneth Brooks (February 2009) --- (Chapter 9 of aquatic science book titled: "Managing Treated Wood in the Environment" - Go to www.forestprod.org/publications for details on ordering.)
Screening Level Assessment Process and Worksheets For Endangered Species Act and Essential Fish Habitat Consultation on Proposed Applications of the Treated Wood in Aquatic Environments (Western Wood Preservers Institute April 1, 2011)
Preservative Aquatic Science
Creosote - Literature review, Computer Model and Assessment of the Potential Environmental Risks Associated With Creosote Treated Wood Products Used in Aquatic Environments
CCA - Literature review, Computer Model and Assessment of the Potential Environmental Risks Associated With CCA Treated Wood Products Used in Aquatic Environments
ACZA - Literature review, Computer Model and Assessment of the Potential
Environmental Risks Associated With ACZA Treated Wood Products Used
in Aquatic Environments.
Environmental Risk Assessment for CCA-C and ACZA Treated Wood - 2003
ACZA Literature Review & Assessment
Addendum to the ACZA model - 2007
Environmental response to ACZA treated wood structures in a Pacific Northwest marine environment - Kenneth M. Brooks, January 20, 2004
ACQ - Literature review, Computer Model and Assessment of the Potential Environmental Risks Associated With ACQ Treated Wood Products Used in Aquatic Environments
Pentachlorophenol Treated Wood - Literature review, Computer Model and Assessment of the Potential Environmental Risks Associated With Pentachlorophenol Treated Wood Products Used in Aquatic Environments
Copper Naphthenate - Literature review, Computer Model and Assessment of the Potential Environmental Risks Associated With Copper Naphthenate Treated Wood Products Used in Aquatic Environments
Fresh Water Systems - Assessment of the Environmental Risks Associated with the Use of Treated Wood in Lotic Systems